For e-commerce and other applications, structured queries can comprise numeric and other predicates generally not supported by the keyword search. This allows finding and comparing merchandise by specifications rather than by keywords needed to get to specifications. Instead of voluminous and often largely irrelevant outputs, users can receive as precise responses as they wish, and also can control the order of items in search results. So it is especially well suited for mobile e-commerce with its “on-the-go” nature.

Unlike the keyword search which is oriented towards humans, the structured search technology facilitates programmatic processing of search results by other systems or applications, which also can generate structured queries automatically.

Altogether this can save billions of hours spent annually by shoppers researching goods and services online in order to get the best deals.

Within the structured search technology, search advertising becomes much more cost-effective because interests of shoppers can be detected much more precisely than in the keyword world. At the same time, search providers will have much more to sell.

Working to the buyer’s advantage, the structured search technology enables better prices, better shopping experience, more money spent in e-commerce, and a more energized and efficient marketplace.


  • Structured Search: From Keywords to Key-objects
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Numbers, Negations, etc.
  • 3. Unstructured vs. Structured
    • 3.1. Unstructured Search: Pros and Cons
      • 3.1.1. Queries independent from data sources
      • 3.1.2. Inexpressive queries = search imprecision
      • 3.1.3. Search results just for humans
      • 3.1.4. No control over output order
      • 3.1.5. Search engines are not green
    • 3.2. Structured Search: Pros and Cons
      • 3.2.1. Expressive and precise
      • 3.2.2. Results can be programmatically processed
      • 3.2.3. No query independence
    • 3.3. Best of Both Worlds: Structured and Independent
  • 4. Introducing Key-objects
    • 4.1. Distilling Query Independence
      • 4.1.1. Words vs. keywords
      • 4.1.2. Keywords or databases – data first
      • 4.1.3. Putting queries first
    • 4.2. Objects and Instances
      • 4.2.1. Objects
      • 4.2.2. Object instances
    • 4.3. Key-object Catalog and Query Enhancement
      • 4.3.1. Querying with key-objects
      • 4.3.2. Beyond SQL
      • 4.3.3. Key-object catalog
      • 4.3.4. Query enhancement
      • 4.3.5. Metaobjects and advertising
      • 4.3.6. Query interface
  • 5. Key-object Search Technology
    • 5.1. Scalable Search Framework
    • 5.2. Query Origination Service
    • 5.3. Q-format and R-format
    • 5.4. Query Processing Service
    • 5.5. Query Processing by Data Providers
  • 6. Key-object Search Economics
    • 6.1. Saving Billions of Hours to Consumers
    • 6.2. Optimizing and Energizing the Marketplace
    • 6.3. Search Advertising Paradise
    • 6.4. Perfect for Mobile E-commerce
  • 7. Case Studies
    • 7.1. Buy-By Marketplace
    • 7.2. YaBinGoo Search Portal
    • 7.3. Beyond E-commerce: Secure Government System
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